Mr. B's House of History

Hinc Lucem et Pocula Sacra

Advanced Placement United States History


Cram Packet!



04.15.14 - PRACTICE DBQ (OPTIONAL!!!!)

The link below will bring you to the DBQ I have chosen for those interested in honing their skills a bit more.


This DBQ is completely optional.

Make sure you will not be interrupted during this experience.  Have everything you need ready to go.

You must hand write this. 

You must time yourself, or have someone at home time you.

15 minutes planning and analyzing (DO NOT RUSH THROUGH THIS PART!!!)

+ 45 minutes writing (remember my advice on conclusions)

= 60 minutes total

Once you click on the link or have your folks hand you the exam, don't back out.  

Don't try your best.  Do your best. 


Believe in your abilities....I do.  Good Luck!




REVIEW, REVIEW, REVIEW, REVIEW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I had recently found these websites that can assist you in your journey to AP perfection.

Practice Quizzes for the AP Exam - provides instant feedback!

Notecards - about 1500 of them 


03.27.14 - The Reagan Revolution

Finish the chapter and read the links

1. Why was Reagan called the Great Communicator?

2. How would you describe Reagan's view on the role of government in society? 

3. What did Reagan do as California's governor that won him support among conservatives? 

4. What is Reaganomics? How did Reagan treat organized labor? Why do many environmentalists loathe Reagan?
5. What was the "Star Wars" program?  How did Reagan's tax cuts and military spending affect the budget? 

6. How was Reagan's foreign policy a sharp contrast to Carter's? Focus on Grenada, El Salvador and Nicaragua. What was the Boland Amendment?

7. Read this link on the
Iran-Contra Affair

8. Does the text give Reagan credit for ending the Cold War? Review the terms glasnost and perestroika. Look at this conservative viewpoint on Reagan's role in ending the "Evil Empire". Print out a copy and highlight for class.

9. Discuss the textbook's criticisms of Reagan on AIDS, homelessness, and growing economic inequality.

10. Ronald Reagan was sometimes called the "Teflon" president -- scandal and controversy didn't seem to "stick" to him and he remained popular. He was also called the "Great Communicator" -- someone who had the ability to appeal to people through his anecdotes and rhetoric. Which label -- the "Great Communicator" or the "Teflon president" -- best describes his legacy? Where does he rank among the presidents?


03.25.14 - Carter's Crisis of Confidence

1. How did stagflation, falling productivity, and the oil crisis make many Americans feel that the "American Century" was coming to an end? 

2. What accounts for the Sunbelt's dramatic economic growth and the Snowbelt's decline?
3. How was Carter able to defeat Ford in the 1976 Election?

4. Explain the terms "busing", "Feminization of poverty", and "the underclass". What do these terms have in common?

5. What caused the rise of the New Right in the 1970s?

6. To what extent was Carter's foreign policy a departure from previous presidents? What were some examples of his foreign policy with "Moral principles"? What were some instances in which Carter put aside human rights?
7. Why were the Camp David Accords considered his greatest achievement? Why was the Iran-Hostage Crisis his greatest failure?


03.24.14 - Today's Century - 1980s


03.17.14 - The Nixon Presidency

Read 1081-1088 and the links.  Skip the portions we read last week.

1.  How did detente alter America's relationship with China and the Soviet Union?  Why was Nixon's trip to Moscow and Beijing considered a pivotal moment in American history?  What did mean to "play the China card?"  How is SALT and ABM related to detente?  Did the creation of MIRV's negate the progress made under SALT and ABM?

2.  Explain how Nixon tackled social, economic, and environmental concerns.  Be sure to make specific references.

3.  After reading about Nixon and Kissinger's covert actions in South Africa, Iran and Chile do you think the OOM's title "Foreign Policy as Conspiracy" is fair?
4.  Why did Nixon's "plumbers" go after Daniel Ellsberg? What were the Pentagon Papers? How did the Supreme Court rule on this First Amendment issue?

5.  What was the basis of Nixon's campaign against McGovern in 1972? 

6.  How did Watergate lead to the fall of the imperial presidency? Know the terms CREEP, Woodward and Bernstein, "Saturday Night Massacre" and the War Powers Act of 1973.

7.  **Could any of Nixon's achievements in office compensate for his Watergate crimes?  What should history say about the Nixon presidency?  Do you think Watergate was, in the end, a victory for democracy or did it lead to national cynicism about leaders and a decrease in Americans' faith in democracy?**


03.12.14 - The Feminists

Read Rita Kramer's The Third Wave (also supplied in class) which provides a detailed history of the modern woman's rights movement up to the demise of the Equal Rights Amendment.  After you are done reading it, please complete the following:

1.  Create a time line of the important events of the woman's rights movement, as described by Kramer, UP TO the nomination of Sandra Day O'Connor for the Supreme Court.

2.  Create a chart comparing and contrasting the moderate feminists (i.e Betty Friedan and co.) with the radical feminists (i.e. W.I.T.C.H). *After fully reading the essay, you will be able to create an incredibly large chart (especially for the moderate's side).  Leave yourself plenty of space.

3.  Explain why a rift was created in the woman's movement.

4.  Compare and contrast the Feminists with the Suffragists.


03.11.14 - Identity Movements

read 1070-1079 (Re-Read the stuff on Black Power but don't take notes!)

1.  In what ways is the feminist movement similar to other movements for equality and social justice in American History (e.g. the abolitionist movement, the labor movement, and the civil rights movement.), and in what ways is it different?


03.07.14 - Nixon and the War


1.  How did Nixon and his vice president Spiro T. Agnew exploit sharp social divisions to win the 1968 election? *Make sure to familiarize yourself with the term "silent majority" and "southern strategy."

2.  How did George Wallace's 13.5% of the popular vote in the 1968 election demonstrate the anti-liberal backlash at the end of the decade? Make sure to look a the link and print it out. Wallace is one of the most colorful, controversial figures in modern American politics. What was his political legacy? How does the text treat him?

3.  After reading about Nixon's handling of the Vietnam War did he fulfill his pledge to the American public to bring "peace with honor"? **Make sure to consider his expansion of the war into Cambodia.  Explain the concept of "Vietnamization."

4.  How did the My Lai Massacre hurt America's efforts to win the "hearts and minds" of the Vietnamese?

03.06.14 - 1968:  The Turning Point

Read 1065-1069 and the links.

1.  Why was the Tet Offensive a turning point in the Vietnam War? How did it affect Johnson's decision not to run for the presidency in 1968? Who were the two popular anti-war candidates?
2.  Look at
MLK's famous speech on the Vietnam War. Just read the first ten paragraphs and select key excerpts that you found interesting. Be ready to discuss.  Also discuss the FBI's harassment of MLK. How did the African-American community respond to MLK's assassination? 

3.  How did Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey's position on the war divide the party? Many Americans look back at the "police riot" at the 1968 Democratic convention and blame the Yippies. Do you agree or do you feel Mayor Daley  was ultimately responsible? 


03.03.14  The Times They Are A-Changin"
Read 1054-1060

1. How did Johnson's War drive a wedge between young members of SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) and liberal Democrats?

2. What events led to the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley?
3. Why was San Francisco considered ground zero for the hippie counter-culture movement? What different forms did this generational rebellion take? What happened at Woodstock?

4. How did the Vietnam War exacerbate the generational conflict?

5. What happened at the University of Wisconsin in October of 1967? What did the Berrigan brothers do that was so controversial? 

6. Why is Vietnam often called a "working-class war?"



02.27.14 - Vietnam:  America's Longest War

Read  1051-1054 and links

1.  Why do you think our textbook takes issue with Johnson's comparison of Vietnam to the American Revolutionary War? Since the roots of US involvement in Vietnam go back to Truman, Ike and JFK why is Vietnam called Johnson's War?

2.  Explain the situation that led to the passing of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.  In what ways did this resolution diminish the role of Congress in war as defined by the Constitution?  Based on the evidence provided to LBJ regarding the incident at Tonkin Gulf, do you think the United States had sufficient cause to increase its presence in Vietnam?

3.  Why did the United States initiate Operation Rolling Thunder?  How did political instability in South Vietnam lead to the "Americanization" of the war?  In what respect did American ideology influence our drive to succeed in Vietnam?

4.  Why was General Westmoreland's strategy of attrition ultimately unsuccessful?

5.  By 1968 the US dropped more than 3 million tons of bombs on Vietnam and eventually delivered more than three times the tonnage dropped by the Allies on all fronts during WWII. Based on this fact and the Air Force's use of Agent Orange (just read the portion on Vietnam) should Johnson be charged with war crimes?

6.  Explain what the credibility gap was.  What factors contributed to it?


02.25.14 - How successful was Johnson's Great Society????


*Then read two of the following articles--"What was Really Great about the Great Society?","The Great Society: A Libertarian Critique."  "How do historians evaluate LBJ's administration?" and "Is the Great Society to Blame?"

Type a 1 1/2 to 2 page analysis answering the question at the top of this homework assignment.

Incorporate at least half of these terms: 
  • Michael Harrington's The Other America
  • Great Society
  • War on Poverty 
  • Office of Economic Opportunity 
  • Project Head Start
  • Medicare
  • Medicaid
  • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Voting Rights Act 1965
  • Department of Transportation
  • Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • Watts Riots


02.24.14 - Johnson's Great Society

1.  Finish your Great Society presentation.  We will be presenting them tomorrow.

Read pages 1060-1065 and whatever pages correspond to this material in your review book.

2.  Explain the significance of each of the following:

  • Michael Harrington's The Other America
  • Great Society
  • War on Poverty
  • OEO
  • CAP
  • Head Start
  • Medicare
  • Riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit
  • Kerner Commission 

3.  What were the goals of Johnson's Great Society?  How successful was it addressing urban poverty and other concerns?  You can answer this question in the form of a chart if you like!


02.10.14 - The Movement Elsewhere

Finish the chapter.

1.   Just notes tonight.  You're welcome!


02.07.14 - The Voting Rights Act and Black Power

Read 1031-1035; 1070-1071

1.   Why did many African-Americans find the ideas of Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam appealing? Why did he take the surname "X"? How are Malcolm X's ideas similar to those of Marcus Garvey?

2.  Explain the incident in Selma, Alabama, that resulted in a nationally televised reaction by President Lyndon Johnson.  Why do many historians view LBJ's televised address and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 as the peak of the civil rights movement? 

3.  How does the rise of black militant groups exemplify African American's lack of patience with MLK's brand of protest?  Who were the Black Panthers?  Why were the Black Panthers heroes in their community?  Why were they controversial?


02.03.14 - The 1964 Election; LBJ and Civil Rights

Read 1024-1031 (stop at Malcolm X)

**I realized just now that the previous homework covered material from tonight's reading.  Sorry.  Review questions 5 and 6 from the previous homework and complete the following:

1.  Despite the fact that Barry Goldwater is considered the father of the modern conservative movement all the text says about him is that he lost in a landslide in the 1964 presidential election. Since the text does not give Goldwater his proper due read this PBS series of short interviews on the importance of Goldwater. Be ready to discuss.

2.  Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 considered the most significant civil rights legislation since Reconstruction? What role did LBJ play in getting this act passed?

3.  Why was the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project such a dangerous venture?


01.30.14 - No Easy Road to Freedom

Read 1016-1024

1.  Which philosophers and thinker had the greatest influence on MLK? What was the SCLC and how did it change the nature of the civil rights movement?

2.  How did the Greensboro sit-ins set off a chain-reaction throughout the South? What was the final result of the 1961 sit-ins in Atlanta? How was SNCC different from other national civil rights organizations?

3.  How did attorney general Bobby Kennedy attempt to promote civil rights? Why was he worried that the freedom riders would embarrass JFK during his meeting with Khrushchev?

4.  How did the case of James Meredith once again demonstrate the importance of federal intervention for guaranteeing civil rights? 

5.  Read and print out MLK's famous
Letter from Birmingham Jail and highlight interesting passages.  How did "Bull" Connor's methods help sway the country towards the civil rights movement?  Why was Birmingham often called "Bombingham"?

6.  Why was JFK's June 11th national television address a defining moment in his civil rights record? Since JFK had finally committed his office to the cause of civil rights why did black leaders still launch a massive march on Washington?  

***BTW:  Excellent review sheet on
Civil Rights *** 


01.27.14 - The Civil Rights Movement Begins

Read pages 1008-1016

**Before reading the text, you must read about the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.  Why do some compare this experiment with the ones conducted by the Nazis during WWII? 

1.  How does the opening story about the Montgomery Bus Boycott demonstrate the grassroots character of the the civil rights movement?
2.  Despite the NAACP's legal victories like Morgan v. Virginia (1946) many freedom bus riders were still arrested. How was this possible? Can you think of other Supreme Court decisions in US History in which the court's ruling was ignored? 

3.  Our text does an excellent job explaining Thurgood Marshall's instrumental role in destroying the Jim Crow laws. Why is Marshall's work often overshadowed by civil rights leaders like MLK and Malcom X? Could one make an argument that he actually did more than either of these leaders to destroy the legal foundations of segregation? Be ready to discuss specific cases that he argued.

4.  Many conservatives today attack judicial activism. They believe laws should be made by either Congress or the state legislatures. Present day Supreme Court judges-Chief Justice Roberts, and Justices Scalia, Thomas, and Alito all believe that judges should act as umpires that interpret the law not write it. Read this link on the famous landmark case
Brown v. Board of Education (1954). What was the legal basis for the court's ruling? Did the court overstep its constitutional powers by essentially writing new law?  Also, why was Chief Justice Earl Warren's second Brown ruling in which he wrote that desegregation plans should commence "with all deliberate speed" so controversial?

5.  Why does our text criticize President Eisenhower for his handling of the crisis in Little Rock? Who was the last president to send armed federal troops in support of black rights before Ike? (You may have to look at the chapter on Reconstruction) What was the famous chant white southerners yelled outside Arkansas Central High School? Also, Read Ike's
Executive Order 10730


01.22.14 - The Cuban Missile Crisis

Read Learning from the Missile Crisis What Really Happened on Those Thirteen Fateful Days in October

Write down 5 new facts that you learned after reading this piece.


01.21.14 - JFK and the New Frontier

Finish the chapter 

1.  What role did television play in the 1960 Election? Why did many critics compare the Kennedy administration with Camelot? Look at some excerpts from JFK's famous 1961 Inaugural Address. How did this speech reflect his hawkishness on the Cold War? What was the famous climax of his speech? Bring in Hofstadter to analyze this speech or print out a copy.   

2.  To what extent was JFK's New Frontier a continuation of FDR's New Deal? What was his best publicized program?What obstacles did Kennedy face in achieving his goals? How was his managerial style a departure from Eisenhower's?

3.  How did events in Laos and Vietnam demonstrate the limits of the CIA and the Green Berets? Why was Diem such a difficult leader to support?

4.  Why was the Bay of Pigs the most humiliating incident in JFK's presidency? Evaluate JFK's response to the Cuban Missile Crisis and explain how the  near disaster affected US-Soviet relations?

5.  How did JFK's assassination shock the nation out of its innocence? If he had somehow survived the assassination do you think he would still be revered to the extent that he is today?



01.16.14 - The Dulles Brothers

Please read the article then either read the transcript or listen to the interview with New York Times correspondent Stephen Kinzer (it's about 8 minutes). The Brothers

Explain how the Dulles brothers were able to influence American policy.  Should they be applauded for their actions or condemned?


01.15.14 - Eisenhower's Foreign Policy

read 987-994 and links

1.  What was Eisenhower's "New Look" in foreign affairs? What role did John Foster Dulles play in shaping Ike's foreign policy?

2.  How did the U-2 spy incident and the launching of Sputnik exacerbate relations between the two superpowers?  How does the United States respond to Sputnik?

3.  Look at either the CIA intervention in Iran, Guatemala or Vietnam
 and evaluate whether these actions were justified and in the long-term served American interests.  Make sure to read this book review on the CIA coup in Iran--"
Regime change Circa 1953."

4.  Read Ike's famous speech on the Military Industrial Complex. Looking at America's current War on Terror and the unprecedented use of private war contractors many critics feel that Ike's warning is more relevant than ever. What do you think?   


01.14.14 - Life in the 1950s

read 980-987

1.  Explain the phenomenon of the "teenager"in 1950s America.  How did advertisers and businesses cash in on this new youth market? 

2.  What role did Alan Freed play in popularizing "rock 'n' roll"? How did Elvis reinvent popular music? (make sure to look at the description of Elvis musical  education in Memphis on 818-819)

3.  What caused the rise in juvenile delinquency? How did television shows like Leave it to Beaver and Father Knows Best reflect 1950s values?  Who were the Beats and what were they rebelling against?

4.  Compare and contrast the 1920's and the 1950s.  Feel free to do this as a chart.


01.13.14 - The Eisenhower Presidency

read 972-979

1.  Eisenhower maintained a method of rule that is sometimes described as "dynamic conservatism" or "progressive moderation." In what ways did Eisenhower attempt to appease both Democrats and Republicans?

2.  When Eisenhower left office he said that his major accomplishment was having created "an atmosphere of greater serenity and mutual confidence." Based on the reading how successful do you think Ike was helping Americans achieve the "good life"? Make sure to focus on the real wages of an average family, the FHA's efforts to help Americans buy homes, the Federal Highway Act and the federal loans to veterans and college students. 

3.  How did books like The Lonely Crowd, Organization Man and The Man in the Grey Flannel Suit reflect the intellectuals disdain for conformist morality of 1950s America?

01.09.14 - The Truman Presidency

Recap:  Today we presented our Cold War posters and discussed the effects China's fall to the communists and the Korean War had on the Truman administration and the American public.

Homework:  Read the remainder of the chapter 930-931; 939-942; 948-954; 958-962

1.  Explain how reconverting the economy overwhelmed the Truman administration.  How were labor unions regarded during the Truman administration.  What was the Fair Deal?  How successful was it?

2.  How did Truman's position on civil rights lead to the development of the Dixiecrat or States Rights Party? How was Truman able to overcome the odds and win the 1948 Election? *Make sure to note the famous photo at the bottom of 940.

3.  How does the GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) assist returning soldiers?  What effect did the GI Bill have on the American economy after World War II?

4.  Who does the "middle class" consist of according to our text?  What are the characteristics of a middle class American?  Why were many Americans able to achieve this "American Dream" in the decades 1950-1970?

5.  What was the baby boom?  What effects did the baby boom have on America?

6.  What problems did women run up against when they sought employment in the post WWII economy? Make sure to look at Modern Woman: The Lost Sex's controversial thesis. *Skip ahead to p. 975 and read the description of Betty Friedan's famous The Feminine Mystique for further insight on the frustrations of suburban women.


01.08.14 - The Cold War in Asia and McCarthyism

Read 939-948; 954-958; answer the questions below

1.  Why was Truman accused of losing China? How did Republicans use Chiang Kai-shek's defeat against the Democrats? How did Mao and Stalin's formal alliance in 1950 and the USSR's explosion of A-Bomb exacerbate America's fears?  

2.   What events caused Truman to intervene in the Korean conflict?  Why was Truman's decision to roll back the communists beyond the 38th parallel to the Chinese border a huge mistake? Considering MacArthur's insubordination and his public demands for the bombing of China would you have supported his firing? What do you think of his quote, "There is no substitute for victory"?

3.   How did Truman use NSC-68 to justify the Korean War and the massive military buildup? How did the war hurt his presidency? How did the war permanently damage US-North Korean relations?

4.  How did events around the globe affect America's home front? What does our text mean when it uses the term "National Security State"?

4)How did the McCarran Act lead to Red Scare in Hollywood? What was a "friendly witness"? What was Alger Hiss accussed of? Why was the Rosenberg case the most dramatic spy case of the era? Should they both have been executed? 

5) Why do you think McCarthy and his associates specifically focused their attacks on homosexuals? Here is an interesting counter-argument to our text defending McCarthyism from the conservative publication--National Review "Two Cheers for McCarthyism."You should definitely check it out though it is not required.


01.06.14 - The Cold War Begins!

Recap:  You handed in your atomic bomb essays.  We began our analysis of the Cold War.

Homework:  Read 931-939 and any links below; answer the questions

1.  Did the Bretton Woods Accord create too much economic subservience to America by the European nations? Stalin saw the institutions that emerged from this conference (the IMF and World Bank) as dollar or economic imperialism. Evaluate this statement. 

2.  Explain the reasons for the creation of the United Nations?  How did it differ from the League of Nations?  How successful was the UN in its first decade? Were the western nations justified in excluding the communist China from the United Nation Security Council?

3.  Explain the doctrine of containment.  How did this doctrine influence American foreign policy during the Cold War?  Why did critics think Kennan's "Long Telegram" was a huge mistake?

4.  What was the Truman Doctrine?  Many historians see Truman's aggressive and confrontational style as exacerbating the Cold War?  Do you agree with these assertions?  Be sure to read the quote by Truman on page 935 when formulating a response.  

5.  Was generosity the only motivation behind the Marshall Plan? Did you know that Truman's initial decision were to send B-29s as a nuclear intimidation during the conflict over Berlin?  What are your thoughts on that?

6.  After reading this section of the text, was the primary threat from the Soviet Union military or ideological - that is, was the danger that the Soviet army would invade Western Europe or that more and more people in Europe and elsewhere would be attracted to communist ideas? 



12.18.13 - The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb

Position Paper:  Should the United States have dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Use the readings through the links below, your own research, and what you learned from watching the documentary White Light, Black Rain to take a strong position about whether or not you think the atomic bomb should have been used by the United States against Japan.  State your arguments and opinion clearly and support them with ample fact and example.   This paper will count as an exam.  Completed papers should be no less than two full pages, typed in Times New Roman 12.

Introduction to the Circumstances Surrounding the Dropping of the Atom Bomb On Japan

Harry Truman’s Diary and Papers

A Personal Record of Hiroshima A-bomb Survival - Takeharu Terao

Testimony of Akihiro Takahashi - A 14 year old survivor

Hiroshima Remembered



12.17.13 - Ending the War (CLASSWORK)

1.  What issues were discussed at the Yalta Conference? Did FDR and Churchill accept Stalin's demand to gain various territories too easily?  Was FDR guilty of appeasement?  If you want a more detailed summary of Yalta, here you go!

2.  Summarize the purpose of the Potsdam and Tehran Conferences.  At the Potsdam Conference, should Truman have offered a conditional surrender in which the Japanese Emperor could retain his title? Could this act have possibly prevented the use of nuclear weapons?


12.16.13 - The War in the Pacific

1. After experiencing Pearl Harbor, reading about the Rape of Nanking, and the Bataan "Death March"and kamikazes how do you think the ordinary American viewed the Japanese?  

2. Why was the Battle of Midway a turning point in the Pacific theater?  

3. Explain the military strategy of island hopping. 

4. Read this famous correspondence between Einstein and FDR. a) Einstein's Letter b) FDR's response. Why is Einstein's letter viewed as a catalyst for the Manhattan Project? What were two facts you learned? 

5. If you were one of President Truman's advisers would the horrible island battles of Iwo Jima (The Allied forces suffered 27,909 casualties, with 6,825 killed in action) and Okinawa ( U.S. losses were over 72,000 casualties, of whom 12,513 were killed or missing, over twice the number killed at Iwo Jima and Guadalcanal combined) factor into your opinion over whether to use nuclear weapons on Japan? Read The Weekly Standard's
Why Truman Dropped the Bomb. Print out and highlight key passages.


12.12.13 - WWII Military History

Read pages 904-915 and the links.  (Links are important as they give us a better, more thorough understanding of the actual war going on in Europe!)

1. Why was the military news from the Pacific theater so bleak?

2. After reading about Stalingrad and Kursk evaluate the argument that Russian troops deserve most of the credit for winning WWII. What are counter-arguments attacking this thesis? Think about the Lend-Lease program, the American and British air offensive against German cities and factories, American destruction of Nazi sub fleet, the North African Front, and the Pacific theater.

3. Your textbook completely excludes any mention of
General S. Patton Look at the link above on one of WWII's most famous generals. Read the section on his WWII battles and read it closely. After reading about his military successes, is our textbook guilty of historical amnesia? What do you think about his ideas concerning the Soviet threat immediately after the war? Why do you think he was so controversial?

4. your textbook is exceptionally critical of the Allied bombing of Dresden. They write it was "the very worst raid of the war--650,000 incendiary bombs dropped on the city of Dresden, destroying eight square miles and killing 135,000 civilians---[that] had no military value." Other historians have called the Dresden bombing a war crime, and some even call it a genocide. Look at either of these two links and decide for yourself --
Bombing of Dresden (1)  Bombing of Dresden (2)  Were FDR and Churchill  war criminals for this act?

5. Why was D-Day a turning point in military history? What if Eisenhower's D-Day plans had failed and Germany had defeated the Allies in the West?

6. What would have happened if Hitler's gamble at the Battle of the Bulge had  succeeded? If you have time and energy read this link for more information-- the Battle of the Bulge


12.09.13 - WWII At Home
Read 894-904, 922

**Tomorrow's HW assignment is below as well.

1. Some historians argue that the decisive factor in Allied victory, even more than military prowess and superior strategy, was the ability of the America to out-produce its enemies. Assess this statement.

2. Evaluate the argument that the war lifted America out of the Great Depression. Have specific facts ready to discuss. 

3. How did defense production transform entire regions of the country?

4. Who was "Rosie the Riveter" and why was she an important symbol for women?

Due Tuesday

5. After reading about FDR's Executive Order 9066 and the Supreme Court's Korematsu decision, why do you think German and Italian Americans were not subject to the same treatment? Investigate this interesting website--
Causes of the Incarceration. (look at the links on economic motives, failure of leadership)

6. Look at Langston Hughes' poem and Horace Pippin's painting (both on 902). How do these artworks reflect the African-American perspective on WWII and the principles of liberty and justice?

7. What caused the
Zoot-suit Riots? Take notes on the site.

Due Wednesday


12.06.13 - World War II Begins

Read the remain pages here and answer the questions below.

1.  How did Roosevelt use legislation, speeches and diplomacy prepare the country for war? Your answer should include the "Quarantine Speech" (1937), Lend Lease Act, and the Atlantic Charter. How can FDR's actions be considered to be a continuation Wilsonian foreign policy?

2.  Many Japanese military leaders felt that their seizure of Dutch, British, and French colonial possessions was simply an assertion of an Asian Monroe Doctrine. Evaluate this statement. You may need to review the Monroe Doctrine.

3.  Explain how the Lend-Lease Act (1941) worked. Why did it lead to intense debate in the United States?

4.  Why was oil a major source of conflict between the US and Japan in the early 1940s?  Why were we caught off guard at Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941?  What problems did the Japanese attack solve for FDR?  Why could the attack on Pearl Harbor be considered a tactical victory, but a political mistake by the Japanese?


12.04.13 - World War II Approaches

Read pgs 800-810 in the reading supplied here and here answer the following questions:

1.  Considering Hitler's provocations in the 1930s such as the renouncing of the disarmament provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, the re-occupation of the Rhineland, and the annexing of Austria, why do you think the the Allies (France, England, and America) refused to stop Nazi aggression? 

2.  Why did Gerald P. Nye, Lindbergh and other isolationists feel America should stay out of WWII? Make sure to look at the link on Lindbergh's anti-Semitism and isolationism.  How did Congress respond to the European crisis?

3.  Explain how the United States foreign policy differed in the following places during the 1930's:  Europe, Asia, the Western Hemisphere.  (this is a loaded question and will take some time to write).  Feel free to answer this in the form of a chart.  Be sure to use dates wherever possible as our policies evolve along with the war.



11.25.13 - Twilight and Legacy of the New Deal

1.  Did FDR abuse his power when he tried to pack the courts? Look at this link on court packing. Also, read the details of the famous Schecter v. US case (1935). What did the NIRA and the commerce clause have to do with kosher butchers from Brooklyn?

2.  Read this article "Race and the New Deal Coalition."  How were minorities treated under the New Deal according to the article?  Does our textbook offer a different point of view?

3. Did the Roosevelt Recession prove that the New Deal was ultimately ineffective?  

4. What was FDR's legacy? Was he one of our greatest presidents when it came to domestic policy?  

5.  To what extent do you think the New Deal was successful?  Take a look at these short articles from the CATO Institute, a libertarian think tank - The Government and the Great Depression. and the Wall Street Journal---"How Government Prolonged the Depression" that offer a critical assessment of the New Deal's failures to help with your response.

6.  Read about Eleanor Roosevelt written by the Pulitzer Prize winning historian, Doris Kearns Goodwin.  How did Eleanor change the role of First Lady?


11.19.13 - The Ordeal of the American People

Read the provided chapter from the Pulitzer Prize winning book Freedom From Fear.  

In a well developed open response question of no more than 2 pages, prove why the author decided title the chapter "The Ordeal of the American People."





11.18.13 - Left Turn and the Second New Deal

Read 859-862 (Some of these questions will deal with the previous reading)

1. According to our text, why did FDR view Huey Long a dangerous politician?

2. After reading about Huey Long in the textbook look at his famous speech he delivered in the Senate--the "Share Our Wealth" plan. Try and skim the speech from Feb 5, 1934. At a minimum look at the seven key points in the beginning.   Do you think Long's plan was practical? How could it be carried out? Does it fit within our country's traditional capitalistic society? Be ready to discuss 2 parts of his plan.

3. Also look at this interesting link on Father Coughlin. Why did he stop supporting FDR? Does the popularity of his virulent anti-Semitism shed light on why America remained aloof during Hitle'r extermination of the Europe's Jews?

4. Why do historians call the "Second Hundred Days" the high point of progressive lawmaking in the New Deal?  What was the "New Deal coalition"? Do you think the Democrats still have this coalition of voters on their side? 

5. How did Social Security establish the principle of federal responsibility for America's most vulnerable citizens? What do you think of plans to privatize this long established program? 

6. Why is the Wagner Act called the "Magna Carta" of labor? How did unions fare under the New Deal? (make sure to read 846-847 and learn why the sit-down strike in Flint, MI against GM is often considered the most important strike in labor history)


11.14.13 - The New Deal

read 854-859 and Rugged Individualism

1.  Summarize Hoover's argument in Rugged Individualism.  To what extent are his arguments valid?  To what extent do you subscribe to his philosophy?

2.  Who were the braintrusters and what was their political philosophy?

3.  Explain how FDR's handling of the bank crisis restored the public's confidence? optional-- read Paul Krugman's "Party Like Its 1929" to see his analysis of the bank crisis of the 1930s.
4.  Why was the CCC such an innovative program?

5.  Why were the AAA and TVA so controversial?

6.  Finally, make sure to read and print out a copy of FDR's Inaugural Address. What excerpts did you find the most interesting? Bring to class. 


11.08.13 - Hoover and the Great Depression

Re-read 835-838; Read 848-848-853

1.  What were the major issues of the 1928 election?  Compare and contrast Herbert Hoover and Alfred Smith.  Why did Hoover win in a landslide?

1.  Make a list of the underlying weaknesses of the economy that led the great stock market crash of 1929 and eventually the Great Depression.  Which factor do you think was most responsible?

2.  Your text on page 852 call it "Hoover's Failure."  Evaluate Hoover's handling of the Great Depression.  Do you think our textbook is being unfair to him?  

3.  You MUST watch the original newsreels of the Bonus Army and listen to the 14 minute National Public Radio clip.  How did the Bonus Army lay the foundation for the G.I. Bill?  Can a comparison be made between the Bonus Army and the Occupy Wall Street movement?

4.  Read this excellent essay on the Great Depression from the National Archives and be ready to discuss.  Print out a copy for class.


11.07.13 - The Century - Stormy Weather

Here is the last part of the video we watched today in class

Stormy Weather Part 3



11.04.13 - The Harlem Renaissance

Today we are participating in a station-based activity on the Harlem Renaissance.  Below are the links to music videos that are necessary to complete Station 3

Louis Armstrong

Cotton Club

Cab Calloway

11.01.13 - Religious Fundamentalism

IN CLASS:  Read 822-823; the Scopes Trial transcript; and the links below

Texas Creationism

Textbook Controversies

1.  How did the Scopes Trial exemplify the cultural civil war that existed during the 1920s?

2.  Based on the trial transcripts, what was the defense trying to prove in this line of questioning?

3.  Based on the trial transcripts, what values appear to be in conflict?  Explain!

4.   What are your thoughts on the above links?  Why is this controversial today?  What constitutional issues are at stake?

HOMEWORK:  Finish the chapter and answer the questions below


1.  Who was the “New Negro?”  What were the circumstances that led to his development?  What were the characteristics of the Harlem Renaissance?  How does it fit into 1920s culture?

2.  Look at this excellent link on Marcus Garvey and explain why the Black Star Line, despite its poor management, was a powerful symbol for blacks in the United States and elsewhere. Also, describe why Garvey was such a controversial figure. What was Garvey's legacy

3.  Why did other black leaders like DuBois demand that Garvey be thrown out of the country? Look at this document from the "Garvey must Go Campaign."  What were some of the arguments levied against him?    

4.  Who were some of the more prominent American intellectuals who were alienated after WWI? For those of you that have read the Great Gatsby how does it reflect that anxiety?  


10.29.13 - The Roaring 20's

Read 802-803; 811-819

1.  What were the characteristics of the new mass culture that developed in the 1920s?  How did this lead to a standardization of American life?  Describe the new “normal” American during the 1920s.   

2. Why was the flapper a threatening image to traditional Americans? How did Margaret Sanger, Sigmund Freud and movie sex symbols like Gloria Swanson and Clara Bow contribute to this new morality? See if you can find images of the sex symbols from the 1920s and then find some from our era to compare. What do these images tell us about the way American culture and taste has changed? (Bring them to class).

3. How successful was the Eighteenth Amendment in stopping the consumption of alcohol? What were some of the unanticipated consequences? *Be ready to discuss the rise of organized crime-"Scarface" Al Capone, etc.



10.28.13 - Republican Philosophies

HW:  Click on the link below.  Read the documents by Hoover and Mellon.  Answer the questions that accompany them.  DISCLAIMER:  Page 220 comes before 219. 

Mellon and Hoover readings


10.25.13 - Politics and Economics of the 1920s

**Yeah, I know, there's a ton of reading and questions to answer. 

Read the following pages:  795, 803-811; 824-827


1. How did Warren Harding's "return to normalcy" campaign lead to his landslide election in 1920?

2. What impact did the "second industrial revolution" have on American business, workers and consumers?

3.  Explain the importance of the automobile in transforming the United States

4.  Why were farmers the exception to the rule in this decade of prosperity?  What other industries failed to prosper?

5.  How did stories of the "Ohio Gang" and the Teapot Dome scandal damage Harding's reputation?

6.  What was Andrew Mellon's view of the proper relationship between business and government?

7.  How were presidents Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover's policies a departure from the Progressives?  Your textbook blames these conservatives for the enormous concentration of wealth in the 1920s.  To what extent do you agree with them?

8. How did America emerge from WWI as the strongest economic power in the world? 

**Finally, read this article from the New York Times on the "Teapot Dome Scandal". Be ready to discuss what you learned from the article.


10.23.13 - Roaring 20's Video


10.22.13 - Postwar Anxieties

Read the following pages in OOM:  791-795, 819-822

1. What was the Red Scare?  How were the Palmer Raids connected to the Red Scare?

2. Explain the background and circumstances of the Sacco and Venzetti trial.  What was the public reaction at home and abroad?

3. Why did the Ku Klux Klan experience a resurgence in the 1920s?

4. How did the public react to the "New Immigration" of the 1920s?  

5. What legislation did the government enact against immigration? Why?  What were the effects (see the chart on page 819).


10.21.13 - An Uneasy Peace

Read pages 789-791

1. How was Wilson's Fourteen Points deeply rooted in his progressive policies?

2. Why was Article X so controversial?

3. Why was Wilson frustrated with the final treaty? How did the war reparations sow the seeds of the Nazi movement?

4. Why did many US senators reject the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations?

5.  Read The Economic Consequences of the Peace.  What is Keynes argument?  Do you think Keynes would have been surprised by the rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party?


10.18.13 - Suffrage and Repression

1.  Explain how the role of the federal government expanded during the war.  Be sure to use specific examples.

1. Compare and contrast the tactics used by Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul in their effort to win women the right to vote. Who do you think played a greater role in eventually persuading Congress to pass a woman suffrage amendment?

2. Some historians argue that the federal government used WWI as a excuse to destroy the IWW. Evaluate this statement. Make sure to look at this PBS link on the IWW.

3.  What was the basic function of the Espionage and Sedition Acts?  Was the federal government's muzzling of dissent justified? Specifically focus on the following three cases- Debs v. US, Schenck v. US, and the Abrams v. US.



Got caught up with some things.  Please simply read 778-787.  Take notes.

10.10.13 - The Great War

Before we get started, here is the link to the last part of The Century that D Period did not get to.

The Century: Shell Shock

RECAP:  We watched an episode of the Century focusing on World War I.

HOMEWORK:  Read 769-778

1.  Which played a greater role in American's decision to intervene in WWI: propaganda or economic ties? 
2.  Were the Germans justified in sinking the Lusitania given the fact that she was secretly carrying war materials?

3.  Was the Zimmerman telegram an excuse to intervene in WWI? Was there really a chance of Mexico invading the US?  What was Wilson’s argument for America’s involvement in the war?

4.  What role did George Creel and the Committee on Public Information play during World War I? What tactics were employed to propagandize the American people into supporting the war effort?

5.  What role did African American soldiers play in the war?  How was their experience a reflection of the racial tension that permeated American society at home?


10.04.13 - Presidential Progressivism

Finish the chapter

1. How were Roosevelt's policies towards labor a departure from previous executives? Be ready to cite specific examples.

2. How did Roosevelt establish his reputation as a trust-buster?  Does he deserve the title of trustbuster?

3. Which of the laws passed under Roosevelt do you think were the most important? Some historians argue that his conservationist and environmental policies were his greatest legacy. Do you agree? 

4. What caused the Republican Party to split? Check out this link on the TR. Also read the presidential politics link.

5. How was Wilson's New Freedom campaign different than Roosevelt's New Nationalism?

6. Evaluate Debs' campaign rhetoric and assess his impact on the presidential race. How did Wilson ultimately win the Election of 1912.(There is a fun interactive game at the end of this page.)

7. Why do many historians argue that the Federal Reserve Act and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act were Wilson's greatest legislative achievements? What were some of his shortcomings? Look at "Wilson and African-Americans."

Also, here is TR in all his glory taking on Bigfoot.


10.03.13 - Progressive Women and the Black Awakening

Read 742-748 and the links 

1.Why was Margaret Sanger such a controversial figure? Make sure to analyze the link.

2. Look at Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois competing views on how African-Americans should tackle racism. Compare and contrast their viewpoints.  Whose ideas do you think made more sense for the time period? 

3. Explain the importance of Plessy v Ferguson (1896) and the investigative journalism of Ida B. Wells 


10.02.13 - The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Today's classwork is on the website because, well, it's simply easier this way.  

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

Cornell University hosts an incredible website on the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.

Directions:  Once you enter the site, click on 'review original text documents. Read the following:

  1. My First Job, by Rosie Cohen
  2. Scroll down to the "Fire!" section and read the FIRST New York Times piece dated March 26, 1911
  3. Read the Eighth Floor testimonial
  4. Go back to the homepage and click on the photograph link.  Peruse the photographs as they will help you focus since you will have to.......

Assume the character of a progressive activist and write an op-ed piece of addressing the issue and their concerns.  Your document should be formatted to look like a newspaper article (i.e. columns, justified paragraph, picture or two in line with text., etc.)

Think about:  What would the progressive say?  Who is the op-ed piece meant to be read by?  What would the tone be?  What is your character trying to accomplish by writing this piece?

I do expect there to be references to specific people, places, events, and legislation wherever appropriate.


10.01.13 - Social Control and and Urban Protest

Read 733-740

1.  Many middle-class and upper-class Protestant progressives feared that immigrants and large cities threatened the stability of democracy. Provide three examples of how these reformers attempted to impose social control on these new urban communities.

2. How did the impact of new immigration transform American cities?

3. Take a look at this quick summary of the History of Ellis Island. Then, make sure to look at this interactive website on the Peopling of America. Look at three major periods, 1820-1880, 1880-1930, 1965-2000. What do you notice?

3. Why was New York City known as the center of the garment industry and Jewish immigration?

4. Why was the Uprising of 20,000 a important turning point in labor history?


09.27.13 - Political Progressivism and The Jungle

Read Professor Cooper's Why Wisconsin? The Badger State in the Progressive Era (supplied in class) and The Jungle.

1.  According to Cooper, what were the factors that influenced Wisconsin to become the "Laboratory of Democracy?"Why Wisconsin Progressivism

Be sure to complete the chart and questions in your Jungle packet.


09.26.13 - The Progressive Era

Disclaimer:  Wow, this unit is epic!   Truly one of the more exciting moments in our history to be studying.  I hope you enjoy learning about this as I do teaching it.  

Please read 722-732

1. What role did women like Lillian Wald play in the Settlement House movement? Why were middle-class educated women like Jane Addams and Florence Kelley attracted to the progressive crusade?

2.  What were the major themes that unified the Progressives?

3.  What was the progressives' criticism of the political machines?

4.  Who was Robert La Follette?  Why did his state, Wisconsin, become known as "The Laboratory of Democracy?"   What was the basic purpose of the initiative, referendum, direct primary, and recall?  

5.  How did Southern Progressives exclude African-Americans?

6.  What were muckrackers?  Identify the major muckrackers (FYI: there are MANY) and their writings.  How did they prepare the way for progressivism? In particular, how did Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbell's muckraking journalism mobilize public opinion?

7.  How did Oliver Wendell Holmes. Jr. and Louis Brandeis (take a quick look, very important to understand the concept of the Brandeis Brief on 732) challenge the conservative view of constitutional law that had dominated courts during the Gilded Age?



09.24.13 - Imperialist Diplomacy

1. Read this link on TR and the Panama Canal. Evaluate historian Walter LaFeber's analysis of the event. If you were one of Roosevelt’s advisors would you support Roosevelt's actions?    

2.  Was the Roosevelt Corollary an extension or distortion of the Monroe Doctrine?

3.  How was President Taft's Dollar Diplomacy different than Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy? What do historians mean when they say America became a Caribbean Constabulary? (make sure to look at the map on 707)

4.  Who was Pancho Villa? Why did Woodrow Wilson's military intervention in Mexico leave a bitter legacy of suspicion and distrust?  Does his policy deserve the title of “Moral Dimplomacy?”

5.  Look at this webpage on the controversial marine Smedley Butler. Read through the entire page. Pay close attention to his famous quote from War is a Racket under the Military Retirement and Speaking Career section. After looking at Butler's military exploits why do you think America's leading imperial soldier became a pacifist and anti-imperialist?


09.23.13 - American Imperialism

Readings for this unit will be, for the most part, through your packet supplied in class.

Read your packet UP TO "Roosevelt: Geo-politician."

1. What were some of the major arguments in favor of imperialism?  Which arguments did you find to be justified/unjustified?

2.  What is meant by "yellow journalism?  How did journalists like Hearst and Pulitzer use it influence America's desire to go to war with Spain?  Explain the events that led to America going to war with Spain.

3.  Define jingoism.  Is jingoism more of a help or a hurt to a nation with that belief?

4.   Why was the Spanish American War called "a splendid little war?"  To what extent did the United States benefit from going to war with Spain?

5.  Explain why there was disagreement over whether or not the US should control the Philippines.  You would you have sided with?

6.  Are Cubans today justified in having a deep mistrust in the United States?  What historical evidence supports this?

7.  Describe John Hay's Open Door Policy.  How did the US benefit from it?


09.18.13 - The Populist Movement

Read the Grange  689-691

1.  What economic conditions led to the rise of the Grange Movement? What type of legislation did the farmers demand?

Skip to Women Build Alliances bottom and the crisis of the 1890s, 692-695

2.  What role did women play in the farmer-labor movement? Focus on Mary E. Lease and Francis Willard.

3.  What was the platform of the new "People's Party?" How did Ceasar's Column represent class tension during this era?

4.  How did the federal government respond to Coxey's March on Washington?

skip to The Election of 1896,bottom of 696-700  

5.  What was the key issue in the 1896 presidential race? b) Why is William Jennings Bryan's,Cross of Gold Speech one of the most famous in American history? c)Why did Republicans triumph? d)Find a cartoon relating to the election of 1896 and print it out for class.

6.  Read "Populism and Agrarian Discontent." The author argues that even though the Populists died out as a political party they had a tremendous influence on the political system. Assess the validity of this statement.  YOU WILL HAVE TO REGISTER WITH GILDER LEHRMAN TO ACCESS THIS ARTICLE!


09.17.13 - Party Politics and the Machine

Recap:  You took a test.....that was all.

Homework:  Read 686 to the top of 689

1.  After the Civil War how did the national government change? Have specific examples ready to discuss.

2.  What was the significance of the Interstate Commerce Commission? 

3.  Why was the tariff the one major political issue of the late 19th century?
4.  What were some of the methods campaigners used to attract voters? 

5.  Why is Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall synonymous with the spoils system and machine politics? Read and print out this link for answers -Boss Tweed 
6.  How did Garfield's assassination lead to the Pendelton Civil Service Reform Act? Also, read "The Doctors Who Killed a President."


09.13.13 - Urbanization and Urban Culture

Recap:  Today we looked at various forms of architecture that developed during the Gilded Age and talked about 'how the other half lives.'

Homework:  Finish chapter 19.  You don't have to take notes.  Just complete the organizational packet I gave to you in class.

There will be a short multiple choice test on chapter 19  this Tuesday.  


09.11.13 -The Court during the Gilded Age

In class we discussed the Supreme Court's pro-business attitude during this era. Read about these three important cases that further highlight the conservative judiciary during the Gilded Age.

Please address the following for each case:  What were the issues at stake? What was the court's decision? What was the justification behind the rulings?  

U.S. v. E.C. Knight

Lochner v. New York (1905)

Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918)

Connection to the present:  To what extent was the ruling in the Citizens United Case  a return to the Gilded Age philosophy?


09.09.13 - Major Conflicts in the Labor Movement

Recap:  Today we began a group assignment illustrating the major strikes in American labor history.  The poster created will be unveiled tomorrow.

Homework:  This assignment is due on Wednesday.  Pay attention to the readings as I making you skip around a bit. 

Read 667-668

1) Explain Thornstein Veblen's term "conspicuous consumption" and provide two examples.

Skip ahead to 684-685

 2) Why is Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888) called a utopian tale? Why do you think Looking Backward was the century's best-selling novel after Uncle Tom's Cabin?

 Skip ahead to 691 (Workers Search for Power)

 3) How did the Great Uprising of 1877 prompt the creation of the National Guard and armories? How would you have advised President Hayes during the crisis?

 Skip ahead to 696 to the bottom of 698 Strikes: Couer D' Alene, Homestead, and Pullman

 4) Were Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick criminal in their treatment of the Homstead steel workers?

5) How did the Pullman Strike push Eugene Debs towards socialism? 

6) Explain the historical context in which social gospel works such as If Christ Came to Chicago (1894) were published

 Skip Ahead to 740-top of 742

 7) How did company towns often leave workers feeling powerless? What happened in Ludlow, Colorado on September 13, 1913? To what degree is John D. Rockefeller Jr. responsible?


09.05.13 - The Rise of the Labor Movement in the Age of Big Business

Read pages 656-663

1.  Compare and contrast the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. If you were a white male laborer which union would you have joined?

2.  How did the bombing at Haymarket Massacre hurt organized labor's cause?

3.  Required---"The Chinese Exclusion Act: A Black Legacy." Pay close attention to the cartoon "A Statute for Our Harbor." What did you learn from this website? Is the fear of illegal Mexican immigration today similar to the 19th century anxiety over Chinese immigrants? 

4.  How did the development of southern industry affect the lives of African Americans living in the South? Give three examples.

5.  Read this op-ed "Gilded Once More." What do you think of his argument? Also look at this chart. Is this a dangerous trend?


09.04.13 - The Rise of Big Business 

Read the documents in the packet given to you in class.  Only complete Parts A and B for now.  We will work on the rest tomorrow.


08.29.13 - The Incorporation of America

Read pages 648-655 and Wealth

1.  After reading the opening story, "Packingtown, Chicago" discuss how industry, ethnicity and big business shaped Post-Civil War Chicago.

2.  What were some of the major revolutions in technology during this second industrial revolution?  

3.  Explain how the United Fruit Company used vertical integration to create an "empire of bananas"? How did John D. Rockefeller use horizontal integration dominate the oil industry? 
4.  Explain how Social Darwinism and the stories of Horatio Alger were used to justifiy the great economic inequalities of the Gilded Age.

5.  Compare and contrast Jay Gould and Andrew Carnegie. Who was the more controversial captain of industry and why?

MUST read NYT piece---"Harder to Rise from the Lower Rungs." Why do you think this article caused so much controversy? Be ready to discuss specific points from the piece.